Stereotype Threat, a psychological phenomenon, documents the ways in which negative societal expectations of non-white, non-male students diminish achievement and motivation among minority students. In “Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines” Leslie, Cimpian, Meyer, and Feeland build on this concept, documenting how gendered attitudes towards intelligence exacerbates gender inequities in particular science disciplines. They explain that scholars that believe that innate brilliance is required for success in particular disciplines have lower representations of women often because women are stereotyped as not having this kind of raw talent. They found the same to be true of African Americans. Messages of hard work and dedication could change this, inspiring both women and men to work hard. Altering these beliefs requires a bigger social shift, and having more women leading science is one step toward making the change.